In the face of the ever-worsening climate crisis, sustainable fishing practices are emerging as a lifeline for communities devastated by its impacts. For centuries, the fishing industry has been a vital source of livelihood for millions of people worldwide. According to recent research conducted by the FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization), the primary fishing and aquaculture sectors employed a staggering 58.5 million individuals in 2021 and harvested an impressive 214 million tonnes of aquatic animals.
The economic and social value of fishing to coastal communities cannot be overstated. However, the commercial fishing industry’s unsustainable practices have placed immense strain on biodiversity and the resilience of global fish stocks. The threats posed by the climate crisis only exacerbate these challenges. Rising temperatures have led to the migration of species, creating a perfect storm that imperils the long-term viability of various fish populations and, consequently, the livelihoods of countless local fishermen, from Senegal to South Korea.
Given the deep-rooted cultural and geographical significance of fishing, sustainability solutions must be tailored to the unique contexts in which they are implemented. Recognizing this, the Adaptation Fund (AF) is actively supporting several projects worldwide aimed at bolstering resilience against climate change and the growing unpredictability of fishing seasons.
From South America to India, the Pacific islands, and Senegal in Africa, key locations for sustainable fishing adaptation initiatives are emerging. Aquaculture, for instance, serves as a supportive component in several AF projects, including those in Indonesia.
Peru Sets an Example
One notable project is taking place in Peru, a country known as one of the world’s foremost fishing nations, with a 3,000km coastline hugging the Pacific Ocean. Peru’s fishing industry is estimated to account for approximately 10% of global fish capture. The region’s nutrient-rich waters have long supported diverse fish species and, consequently, generations of coastal communities. Ubaldo Tume, a local fisherman in Cabo Blanco, a village in Peru’s northwest, remarks, “We have found a constant source of work here, and it can provide us more than we can imagine.”
However, these communities now face threats from extreme weather events, overfishing, and pollution. Profonanpe, an environmental non-profit organization in Peru and one of the Adaptation Fund’s national implementing partners, has initiated a project aimed at helping these communities reskill and rebuild. The project involves 700 local fishermen from Peru’s northern and southern coasts, equipping them to navigate a future where climate change is an ever-present reality.
One innovative aspect of the project is the introduction of a new forecasting modeling approach that will facilitate the development of an early warning system. This system will alert fishermen to extreme weather events such as marine heatwaves, algae blooms, or sulfur plumes. Moreover, the project empowers villages to diversify their income streams by adopting practices such as eco-tourism, biofertilizer production, and the sale of handicrafts. Additionally, it introduces new tools and technologies to promote sustainable fishing practices.
Empowering Women and Cultivating Resilience
A strong emphasis is placed on empowering women within these communities. José Zavala, the General Coordinator of the Coastal Marine Ecosystem Adaptation Project, explains, “The work of women within the productive chain of artisanal fishing was invisible for a long time. That is why it was decided, in a participatory manner, to include activities exclusively for them and adapted to their way of life.”
On the other side of the Pacific Ocean, a separate Adaptation Fund project is underway in Nauru, a small island nation categorized as a small island developing state. Nauru, an isolated coral island spanning 21 square kilometers, is highly vulnerable to rising sea levels and extreme weather events. With a population of over 10,000 people, the island relies heavily on small-scale fishing for domestic consumption. However, despite its dependence on fishing, 90% of the country’s food is imported. To enhance self-sufficiency, the project focuses on identifying new marine species suitable for aquaculture. It also prioritizes reef restoration in crucial areas and launches an education campaign to ensure fishermen possess the knowledge to preserve reef fish diversity.
Adapting for the Future
For artisanal fishermen, climate change represents a profound threat to a way of life rooted in centuries of tradition. Many of these fishermen recognize the need to adapt their livelihoods to survive in new and challenging conditions. Ubaldo Tume reflects, “This will not stop, but we must join forces to tackle it together.”
Investing in new technologies, such as early warning systems, enables existing fishermen to prepare for the worst. However, building self-sufficiency through aquaculture, restoring local ecosystems, and diversifying income sources are all crucial components of a comprehensive approach.
By embracing sustainable fishing practices and prioritizing resilience-building initiatives, communities ravaged by the climate crisis can find hope and a lifeline that will sustain them for generations to come.